Wednesday, June 23, 2004

Double Jeopardy

The Criminal Procedures Bill is about to begin its path through Parliament (Double Jeopardy Debate Begins). Among other things this bill will allow for retrial of aquitted defendants under some circumstances. Civil libertarians may be concerned about this change but knee-jerk responses need to be avoided.
I have always felt the more important issue was whether juries correctly apply the standard of "proof beyond reasonable doubt" in the first place. In scientific investigations a trial investigating (for example) the efficacy of a new drug is considered "significant" only if the statistical probability that it's results could have arisen by chance is greater than 1 in 20, and the drug's efficacy would be accepted only when confirmed by significant results from a number of independent studies conducted by multiple researchers under varying circumstances. Even then few scientists would say that the efficacy of the drug was proven "beyond reasonable doubt".
Juror's are denied the luxury of waiting for further results. It is the prosecution's responsibility to investigate thoroughly before the case comes to trial. A thoughtful juror who judges that the defendant is "90% probably guilty" should demand an aquittal but will come under enormous pressure from other jurors who don't know the meaning of the word, "doubt". This is not helped by the knowledge that a wrongful acquittal can never be remedied coupled with the (largely erroneous) belief that a wrongful conviction can. It would help if all juries were more thoroughly instructed on the meaning of reasonable doubt (any doubt that a reasonable person might seriously entertain) and specifically warned against applying the lesser standard of "balance of damage" ("better to acquit ten guilty men than to convict one innocent man"). It would also help if a "not guilty" verdict were called "not proven" (which is what it is).
Actually I quite like the idea of a two-stage process for criminal proceedings. The first stage would be conducted as at present but the jury would decide whether each charge was "proven" or "not proven". Majority verdicts might be allowed. A verdict of "proven" would then proceed to argument on sentence (just as a guilty plea does now). A verdict of "not proven" would lead to a second stage in which both counsel and the trial judge could resummarise their cases (but not present new evidence). The jury could then (after deliberation) bring in a new verdict of "not guilty" (if they were satisfied that the accused was innocent on the balance of probabilities) or leave the verdict as "not proven". A "not guilty" verdict would then be a positive finding of innocence and would normally entitle the accused to costs and to protection against double jeopardy. The Crown would be able to appeal a "not proven" verdict (and possibly gain a retrial) under more or less the same conditions as a defendant can appeal a "proven" verdict but could appeal a "not guilty" verdict under only very limited conditions.
I'd be interested to hear other bloggers thoughts.

68 Comments:

Blogger Nigel Kearney said...

Your suggestion might work, but I'd guess there would be lots of 'not proven' verdicts leading to more litigation.

It's not clear what you expect the Court of Appeal to do when the Crown appeals a 'not proven' verdict. Are they supposed to make new findings of fact, is there an automatic retrial, or something else? How many trials before you give up? Does the defendant go free if the case is 'not proven' or can they be held in custody?

I don't support the 11-1 verdict because I don't really believe most jurors fully engage in serious, reasoned analysis of the evidence. An 11-1 outcome could easily be 1-1 with 10 sheep blindly following whoever offers a more persuasive presentation of their view.

We don't really have a problem at the moment with juries letting dangerous criminals walk free. Only the Parole Board does that.

26 June 2004 at 4:09 PM  
Blogger Greyshade said...

Nigel: I personally believe that jurors rarely enforce the standard of "proof beyond reasonable doubt" at present and that the changes I suggest may therefore lead to a rash of "not proven" verdicts but only in the short term. Prosecutors will soon learn the new actual standard of proof (ie what a jury will convict on) and will investigate cases more thoroughly before bringing them to trial. This may increase costs slightly but reduces the risk of a miscarriage of justice. Ultimately it's a quality control issue. Were we to achieve a similar enforcement of the burden of proof uncer the present system the rash would be of "not guilty" verdicts which can never be remedied.
I believe the two-step process I suggest removes the risk that jurors will use "not-proven" as a compromise.
A not proven verdict would mean that the accused would be released but would nor (normally) be eligible for costs and would have only limited immunity from reprosecution. I am open to suggestions as to how easy it should be to reprosecute an accused who has been found "not proven". I suggested that it might be similar to that for a defendant appealing a verdict of guilty (new evidence, misconduct or judicial error in the first trial). That might be too restrictive but at the very least the prosecutor should have to show reasonable grounds.

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